English bulldog

German dachshund

The dachshund is also called the dachshund or dachshund, with all three names being correct and denoting the same breed of dog. Over the centuries three varieties have emerged, all of which have not only become extremely popular, but have even advanced to become a German trademark: The dachshund Waldi represents the mascot of the 1972 Olympics in Munich and is featured in the well-known TV series “Hausmeister Krause” the dodging in the honorable club is way above all other things in life.

The origin of the dachshund

Paleolithic depictions of short-legged dogs with lop ears and long bodies can be found on a cave wall in Vence, France. Another dachshund-like dog shows an ancient Egyptian sculpture of Pharaoh Thutmose ‘, whose reign around 1500 BC. is dated. Both images leave room for speculation as to whether the dogs are a freak of nature or whether such a breed actually existed. Manuscripts of the Greek historians Xenophon and Flavius ​​Arranius give precise information about the forerunners of today’s dachshunds.

There the Segus, the oldest Gallic tribe and their hunting dogs with remarkable noses (canis segusius) are mentioned. It is assumed that the Gauls, Celts and Romans developed numerous other types of hunting dog from the original form canis segusius and spread them all over Europe. Gaston III, Count von Foix around 1388 describes the first detailed reports on different types of dogs and types of hunting in his book “Le Miroir de Phébus des Deduitz de la Chasse des Beste Sauvaiges et des Oyseaux de Proie”. The author particularly emphasizes the bracken (chiens courants, hounds), as they are equally well suited for parforce hunt, driven hunt and hunting on a leash. The dachshund has been used as a hunting dog since the Middle Ages. In the 19th century, the British Queen Victoria took a liking to this “graceful sausage on four legs”, introduced the breed and made it widespread on the island. Around 1900 the first dachshunds are presented at exhibitions in France, but they were stronger than today’s dogs. The first breed standard appears in 1925, a revision in 1947 lowered the weight of all varieties.

The development in Germany

Around 1860, Wilhelm von Daacke, a forester from Osterode in the Harz Mountains, grew dissatisfied with the poor performance in blood tracking (tracking) of his dachshunds. Since Wilhelm’s father breeds bloodhounds, the hunter decides to cross-breed smaller, short-barreled specimens from his native litters. The result is red dachshunds with a distinctive black mask and dark hairline along the spine. The name Dachshund is based on its use in the water, where the dachshund is able to penetrate badger burrows thanks to its physique or place startled prey in the water. When hunting above and below ground, it is used to target foxes or rabbits. Daackes improved dachshunds are in great demand worldwide from other hunters and breeders who discover the breed as lovable companion dogs. In addition, the breeding of other bloodlines from his own kennel results in a total of nine other varieties in three sizes with three types of fur, so that von Daacke is regarded as the most important founder of the breed. The first breed description in German appears in 1879, whereby the appearance of the Dachshund gradually becomes just as important as its hunting ability. Major Emil Ilgner and Count Klaus Hahn founded the DTK (Deutscher Teckelklub) in 1888. By the 1960s, demand increased enormously, and the dachshund became a favorite breed everywhere. Currently, interest in Germany has declined, but in Japan the demand is extremely high, so that most of the dachshunds are currently born there. Overall, Dachshunds are the second most popular breed worldwide after the German Shepherd.

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Body type and coat

In addition to the three different hair clothes, the short-haired dachshund, wire-haired dachshund and long-haired dachshund are categorized into three weight classes. The size is not determined on the basis of the height at the withers, as usual, but rather on the chest circumference at the age of at least 15 months. When hunting, all types of dachshunds perform equally well.

Rabbit dachshund: up to 3.5 kg, chest size max. 30 cm, Dwarf dachshund: up to 4 kg, chest girth over 30 cm – 35 cm, normal dachshund: 6.5 kg – 9 kg, chest girth over 35 cm

The short-haired dachshund

As early as 1890, the first stud book counts 54 black and red short-haired dachshunds, which are seen as the basis of the entire breed, including wire-haired and long-haired. His coat is tight, tight and shiny. The black and red short-haired dachshund is the original form, the crossing of red Haidbracken produced the pure red short-haired dachshund. There are also the pure colors yellow and red-yellow. All single-colored coats of hair may have black stinging. Two-colored short-haired dachshunds have a brown or deep black base color with yellow or rust-brown markings. White spots and overly accentuated “burns” are undesirable. The basic color of the tabby short-haired dachshund should be yellow or red with dark currents. Spotted markings appear in irregular, smaller, beige or gray spots. Plate formation is undesirable, otherwise the color distribution should be balanced.

The long-haired dachshund

The story of the long-haired dachshund begins in the 17th century at the court of Johan Georg II, Prince of Anhalt and Dessau. The breeder Leopold Wöpke realized the prince’s wish for dachshunds with a particularly beautiful coat by crossing in small spaniels. At the end of the 18th century, the new breed was fully developed, but the Wöpke breed disappears again after almost a hundred years. It was only the Bavarian breeder Joseph Rangger who continued to refine the long-haired dachshund: The compact body was given pleasing, balanced proportions. The Rangger breed was the first of its kind to be accepted into the breeders’ association. The first kennels are run by Freiherr von Cramm and Bünau in Bernburg. As of the late 1930s, the long-haired variant ranks first on the popularity list as it shows more obedience and docility than its brothers. From the 1970s until today, the wire-haired dachshund has conquered the top position. The hair of the long-haired dachshund forms silky outer hair that is attached to the body and is provided with an undercoat. The hair is visibly longer on the front chest as well as on the underside of the body. The ears and the back of the returns are feathered. The hair with the greatest length is at the bottom of the tail, where it forms what is called a flag. The permitted coat colors of the long-hair dachshund are identical to those of the short-hair dachshund.

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The wire-haired dachshund

The wire-haired dachshund is created by crossing the short-haired dachshund with various terrier and schnauzer breeds. It takes a long time for the result to be satisfactory. For example, the Dandie Dinmond Terrier leaves leg misalignments and soft, long hair with curly tufts, as is often seen in wire-haired dachshunds. The legacy of the Schnauzer turns out to be positive with increased predatory wildness. Due to the great demand, more and more breeders are devoting themselves to the wire-haired dachshund, giving it its present-day appearance with a well-proportioned body and characteristic coat. It is wiry, evenly fitting outer coat with an undercoat, which is only missing on the ears and the muzzle, which are shorter in hair. A pronounced beard adorns the muzzle and bushy eyebrows underline the expressive facial expressions. In order for the wire-haired dachshund to look well-groomed, it must be trimmed regularly.

The character of the dachshund

Its centuries-old use as a hunting dog is firmly rooted in the nature of the dachshund. Even the most popular domestic dog of our time has a large portion of self-confidence, he is courageous and sometimes tends to act independently. This is not stubbornness, as some owners assume, but these traits ensured the Dachshund’s survival in the past. Thanks to his physique, he could easily penetrate underground badger burrows and place dangerous prey that was larger than himself. Other relics of hunting are his perseverance and preference to plow the earth. Garden owners don’t need to worry about flower beds and vegetable plantings when the dachshund gets its own corner where it can pursue its passion without causing damage – it is not for nothing that this busy breed is called “aardvark”. His talent as a family clown is also well known. He puts on his typical dachshund look and makes all sorts of jokes. It’s not so funny when the good guy suddenly stops hearing while walking and disappears into the undergrowth as fast as an arrow to follow a trail. He shows his enthusiasm with excited yapping so that the owner at least knows where his dog is. In order to stop his spirited barking in the house or apartment, consistent upbringing with gentle severity is necessary from an early age. The dachshund can learn the basic terms in the dog school, where he can later take the companion dog test. The vigilant and intelligent Dachshunds want to be employed in a meaningful and varied way. They are grateful play partners for the children and they also enjoy dog ​​sports. Only in agility you shouldn’t overtax Teckel in order to protect your back: Obedience, for example, is better. Proverbial are his possessive nature and jealousy. The dachshund is a sociable housemate and he quickly understands what is expected of him, but he has his favorites and shows his dislike of certain people or other dogs in exactly the same way.

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Due to their short runs and their relatively long spine, dachshunds tend to have herniated discs, or dachshund paralysis. It is advisable to spare older dogs from climbing stairs and to carry them if possible. The same applies to jumps that are strongly compressed from the sofa or when getting in and out of the car. As a preventive measure, keepers should ensure plenty of exercise, on the one hand to strengthen the back muscles and on the other hand to prevent obesity. The energy requirement of the rabbit dachshund is covered with 100 g, with the miniature dachshund with 120 g – 140 g and with the standard dachshund with 270 g – 300 g of complete food. The dachshund teeth tend to form tartar, which often has to be removed regularly from the first year of life. Tip: A special long-eared bowl makes feeding easier.

The German Dachshund at a glance

Origin: Germany FCI Standard No. 148, Classification Group 4, Section 1: Dachshunds Alternative names: Teckel, DachshundVarieties: Dachshund, Miniature Dachshund, Rabbit Dachshund Height at withers: 17 cm – 25 cm, the ratio to body length should be 1: 1.7 to 1: 1.8 Chest: 30 cm – 35 cm depending on the varietyWeight: 3.5 kg – 9 kg depending on the varietyHair coat: shorthair, longhair, wire hair dark brown. A reddish brown nose is undesirable Ears: rounded, drooping, flexible Physique: elongated, muscular, low Use: hunting dog, companion dog Character: happy, active, persistent, stubborn Health risks: rheumatic diseases, intervertebral disc problems, tartar, overweight Life expectancy: 12 – 17 years

Image: © / Garosha