Before acquiring a purebred pet, you should know that only a specialist and a DNA test can determine for sure whether a dog is of pure blood, or a cross. This is not required if the dog has a pedigree, but what if it was purchased without documents? Or did you accidentally hit the house? There are several criteria according to which it is possible, albeit approximately, but to understand how to determine the breed of a dog.
Basic methods for determining breed
It is worth noting that if the dog is a mestizo, then there is no way to determine the pet’s attitude to a particular breed at puppyhood. Often, the signs of the breed appear only by the year, but no one can guarantee this.
Of course, if we are talking about dogs with pronounced characteristics of the breed, for example, a dachshund or a sharpee, then they can be seen in a dairy puppy.
In the absence of experience, it is very difficult to identify even a purebred puppy, so buying from hands always carries certain risks. An undocumented dog is considered a mongrel, even if its parents are of pure blood. But this does not mean that she has bad qualities or will not have defining characteristics. This only suggests that the owners need to be extremely attentive to the characteristics of the puppy, and it is better to consult with a dog handler or breeders of this breed.
If it is necessary to determine the breed of an adult dog, then you can independently analyze the available signs, write them down, and re-read a lot of information.
If the dog “noblewoman” is not in the first generation, then, most likely, it will not be possible to detect signs of the breed in it. But this is not a reason for frustration, since quite often, outbred tetrapods are superior in intelligence to their titled counterparts. And with health, and the duration of the life cycle, they are doing much better.
Varieties of dogs
If you know at least the basic criteria, then it is quite possible to attribute the available signs to a particular breed.
Dogs are primarily divided into the following types:
- Purebred, pedigree, thoroughbred. This is a dog with a pedigree and a special electronic chip, on which a certain number is applied. In addition, such dogs are branded. Finding out about the origin of both the dog itself and its ancestors, in this case, is easier than ever – you need to contact a veterinary clinic or any club of dog breeders.
- Phenotype. If a pet is a spitting German shepherd, or a one-to-one dachshund, but does not have supporting documents, then before he receives a “zero pedigree” it will be considered a mongrel.
- Metis. This definition refers to all dogs with undefined origins, those whose parents (one or both) do not belong to any breed. If a person decides to acquire a puppy from a purebred bitch and an unknown father, then he should be prepared for the fact that the pet, if not immediately, will show signs of outbredness or a mixture of phenotypes.
Breed determination methods
Of course, if there is a brand, then, in most cases, the phenotype will be noticeable, and it will not be difficult to learn about the dog’s breed. In other cases, you will have to work hard and pay attention to many factors:
- Definition of the breed by age. Any signs of the breed are dependent on the age of the dog, which is determined by the condition of the teeth. Special exhibition schedules and schemes have been developed, according to which the time for replacing milk teeth or abrasion of permanent ones is calculated. But you can rely on these data only if the dog grows and develops strictly according to the plan, it has a proper bite and it eats in a balanced way. Practice shows that you can meet a young dog with bad, worn teeth or a puppy with tartar. The only thing that works anyway is the same period of tooth change, which occurs between 4 and 7 months.
- Dimensions of dogs. This is one of the most important criteria for determining the breed. The size of the animal is taken based on its weight and height:
- miniature dog – maximum weight 5 kg, height 30 cm;
- small – 5-12 kg, height 30-40 cm;
- medium size – 12-20 kg, 40-55 cm;
- large – 20-30 kg, 55-65 cm;
- very large – 30-50 kg, 65-75 cm;
- giant dog – weighing over 50 kg and over 75 cm.
When focusing on the size of the animal, it is necessary to pay attention to its age. Determining the size of a dog at puppyhood is incorrect. As usual, puppies have a disproportionate body structure – a large head and legs, a spherical belly. In addition, all puppies are clumsy, cannot avoid dangers in time and are afraid of sudden movements and sounds, even minor ones.
- Types of coat. There is a conditional division of dogs into the following varieties:
- Naked. There is no hair at all. Also, this category includes dogs with a small fluff on the body, a tuft or a small amount of hair on their paws.
- Shorthaired. The dog is covered with a uniform layer of hair maximum 1 cm long. At the same time it stands upright.
- Semi-longhaired. The length of the coat varies from one to four centimeters. In most cases, dogs with such a coat have an undercoat (downy hair), sometimes thick hair on the collar and breeches. On the belly, the hair may be absent.
- Long-haired. The coat is longer than 4 cm, there is a dense, dense undercoat, a pronounced collar and breeches. Most often, a large area of the abdomen is overgrown with wool.
It is worth noting that during the warmer months the dog may have no undercoat, and a long-haired bitch may have the appearance of a semi-long-haired dog.
- The structure of the bone corset. If the breed is determined from a photo, then the type of body structure can be analyzed. By measuring the width of the sternum, back, pelvis, legs and total body length, it will be possible to weed out many breeds, making it much easier for yourself. The skeleton of dogs has its own division:
- Narrow. The size of the chest is equal or close in size to the width of the pelvis. In most cases, such indicators indicate that the pet has excellent running data. In this case, it is worth looking for the dog’s belonging to the hounds and greyhounds.
- Average. The sternum is the same size as the pelvis or wider. This is the largest group of dogs, which includes almost all medium-sized service breeds. Taxes also fall under these sizes. and german shepherds.
- Wide. Dogs with this bone have a powerful, well-developed chest and a heavy, wide pelvis. Of course, such a pet will have large dimensions and if it has long hair, then, most likely, it belongs to shepherd breeds – Caucasian, Central European Shepherd Dog, etc.
- Shortened. Already at first glance from the side, the animal looks like a square. In this case, short paws are often observed, but not always.
- Elongated. A dog with such a bone has a rectangular body, the hind legs are slightly longer than the front ones – this is especially noticeable when the pet takes a stance.
Features of the structure of the body
In addition, there are many features by which it will be possible to classify a dog as a certain breed:
- Type of ears – they can be very small or disproportionately large, stand upright or hang, be cropped or medium in size.
- Tail type – long, short, straight or curled into a ring, raised above the level of the spine or lowered; covered with thick long hair or short, cropped or not.
- Posture type – dogs have a straight back and downward.
- The type of skin is tight, dense or has excess folds.
- Coat type – Sometimes a breed can be identified by the presence of a beard, hair above the eyes, a certain coverage of the paws.
- Color type – presence of tan marks, spots, strict color distribution, brindle color.
In addition to everything, representatives of different breeds have their own “working” qualities. An open-air hunting dog will sniff the air, and take a stance when it sees the intended prey. Deep instincts are found in herding dogs. Having met a pet – a cow or a sheep, the dog can begin to fulfill its duties.
If the pet does not show interest in hunting, grazing livestock and does not bring a stick, then, most likely, it is also intended for an important matter – to be a devoted friend and companion.
In any case, no matter what breed the pet belongs to, it will be both a reliable protector, and an excellent hunter, and a best friend, and a faithful companion, if the owner loves and cares for him.