There is no age limit. The triggering factors are varied. Frequent causes are bleeding (both externally and internally), vomiting, diarrhea, burns and overheating, i.e. high fluid losses, but also hypersensitivity reactions, for example to medication or insect bites.
The initial symptoms are a rapid pulse (felt on the inside of the thigh), accelerated breathing, pale mucous membranes, slight hypothermia, cold limbs and ears. These symptoms increase. The pulse becomes flatter, the heartbeat weakens, the body surface is cold and the dog is drowsy or even unresponsive.
Shock requires immediate treatment before any other emergency response. Place the animal on its side with the head straight and lift the pelvis and hind legs a little with the help of a pillow or something similar. Bleeding must be stopped with a pressure bandage, a blanket protects against further hypothermia. It is imperative to immediately take the dog to the veterinarian who will provide targeted treatment.
Prevention is difficult because shock is usually triggered by unforeseen things, such as accidents or allergic reactions. Most important is rapid detection and immediate veterinary care.